Bronchoconstriction in COPD
The Bronchoconstriction in COPD will take place when the autonomic nervous system regulates the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle thus controlling the diameter of the bronchioles, the rate of breathing and regulating the rate of airflow. The autonomic nervous system is further divided into the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system. In the respiratory system, the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems have opposing actions. Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system causes the smooth muscle of the bronchi and bronchioles to relax, causing bronchodilation, whereas stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system causes smooth muscle to contract, leading to bronchoconstriction Bronchodilators improve the airflow limitation observed in patients with COPD by producing airway smooth muscle relaxation, although beta ‘agonists and anticholinergics achieve this effect through different mechanisms.
- Track 1-1 Gas Exchange Abnormalities
- Track 2-2 Pulmonary Hypertension
- Track 3-3 Air Trapping
- Track 4-4 Ciliary Dysfunction